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There are two different styles: operable and fixed. An operable window has moving parts that can be opened; a fixed window can't be opened. These two basic styles have many variations: Awning windows are operable windows. They are top-hinged so you open them by pushing the bottom of the sash out and up.
Bay windows combine three or more windows in a single unit. Most have a large center window flanked by two smaller windows at 30- or 45-degree angles to the wall. A bay window projects outside and away from the wall, so it's usually capped with its own small roof or covering. Some large bay windows also surround an interior window seat.
Bow windows are similar to bay windows except that they consist of four- or five-window units sitting at 10-degree angles. Again, these can be an awkward fit for shutters. Casement windows are similar to awning windows except they open outward to the right or left.
Clerestory windows sit above other windows or doors and are often used for venting. Cottage windows are operable windows similar to double-hung window (see "double hung" below). However, the two sashes are different sizes; usually the upper sash is shorter than the lower one.
Double-hung windows are the most common operable windows, and they consist of two stacked window units (or sashes). In this style, both the upper and lower sashes move up and down in the frame. This dual-action gives this window its "double" name. (See "single-hung" below.) Fixed windows are one of the two basic styles of windows. You can't open fixed windows, but they can take any shape imaginable!
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Palladian windows have a large, arched window flanked by smaller windows on each side. Patio glass is a style of sliding window (see below). Patio glass acts as a door as well as a window, so it extends all the way to the floor.
Single-hung is just like a double-hung window (see above), an operable window that consists of two stacked window sashes. But in this style only the lower sash opens. The top sash is stationary.
Single pane is a single, 1/8th-inch thick pane of glass. Sliding windows are another style of operable window, also called gliding windows. These open and close by moving the sashes horizontally.
Storm windows are an extra window that cover the inner window. They provide extra protection and some thermal insulation during heavy weather and come in two basic styles. An "add-on storm" is suspended from hooks and held closed with a gate hook and eye. They are exchanged for screens in warmer months. A "combination storm" is screwed into the exterior trim. Its sashes and screen slide in tracks and can be raised and lowered to fit the season.